Editing instruction JMLE
Editing Instructions for Journals
Paris Legal Publishers
Use brackets when you insert words into a direct quotation.
‘The European Commission Report [on Article 81] explains (…)’.
Use the Latin word ‘sic’ in brackets to indicate an error in a quoted sentence which appears in the source material.
‘The report on misdemeanours give [sic] an overview of the locus of crime around city centres.’
1.2. COMMA IN NUMERALS
Use commas in numerals greater than 999, but not in page, paragraph, or section numbers.
Use a spaced en-dash to indicate an interruption in a text.
There was a time – and indeed not very long ago – when things were much different.
Use an ellipsis in parentheses to indicate that you have deleted material from a quotation.
‘This decision (…) only seems to allow a negative conclusion.’
Do not use an ellipsis at the beginning of a quotation. Do not use an ellipsis at the end of a quotation unless you have deleted the final words of the quotation.
A provision of this Part which is expressed to apply to, or in relation to, an agreement is to be read as applying equally to, or in relation to, a decision by an association of undertakings or a concerted practice (but with any necessary modifications).
Quotation in manuscript:
A provision for section 2(5) on agreements preventing competition applies to ‘a decision by an association of undertakings or a concerted practice (…)’.
1.5.1. Abbreviations with a Period
Use a period at the end of an abbreviation if the abbreviation is made by truncating the word.
et cetera etc.
1.5.2. Abbreviations without a Period
Do not use a period at the end of an abbreviation if the abbreviation includes the last letter of the abbreviated word.
Do not use periods in capital letter abbreviations, including country codes, US states, organization names, and currency abbreviations.
1.6. QUOTATION MARKS
1.6.1. Single Quotation Marks
Use single quotation marks.
Non-business premises is defined in as, ‘any premises to which a decision of the Commission ordering the Article 21 inspection relates’.
1.6.2. Double Quotation Marks
Use double quotation marks for quotes within quotes.
Section 2(7) of the Competition Act states, ‘“the United Kingdom” means, in relation to an agreement which operates or is intended to operate only in a part of the United Kingdom, that part’.
1.6.3. Quotation Marks and Other Punctuation
126.96.36.199. Commas, Colons, and Semicolons
Commas, colons, and semicolons are placed outside the end-quotation mark.
Section 2(7) of the Competition Act states, ‘In this section “the United Kingdom” means, in relation to an agreement which operates or is intended to operate only in a part of the United Kingdom, that part’; however, …
188.8.131.52. Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Marks
Periods, question marks, and exclamation marks are generally placed outside the end-quotation mark; however, if an entire sentence is quoted (including the initial capital letter), the period, question mark, or exclamation mark may be placed inside the end-quotation mark.
Abbreviations, other than short references, should not be used in the body of a text, but may be used in footnotes.
Some examples include:
Article 1 Art. 1
Chapter 9 Ch. 9
section 2 s. 2
sections 2 and 9 ss 2 and 9
subsection (3) subs. (3)
subsections (3)-(5) subss (3)-(5)
Schedule 8 Sch. 8
Order 23 Ord. 23
2.1.1. Latin Abbreviations
Latin abbreviations are appropriate in footnotes and bibliographies. Most Latin abbreviations have become anglicized and are not italicized.
Latin Abbreviation Latin Word English Equivalent
cf. confer compare
e.g. exempli gratia for example
et al. et alii and others
etc. et cetera and so forth
i.e. id est that is
N.B. nota bene note well
2.1.2. Short References
A short reference is used when an abbreviated name will be used throughout a text. To introduce a short reference, use the entire name followed by the abbreviation in parentheses the first time the name is used.
Burgerlijk Wetboek (BW)
De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB)
2.2.1. Proper Nouns
Capitalize proper nouns that are specific names for people, organizations, places, or things. Always capitalize the phrase Member State(s).
When some general nouns are followed by a number, the term becomes a proper noun. However, the words paragraph, section, subsection, page, and footnote do not become proper nouns when followed by a number.
2.2.2. Titles and Headings
Capitalize all words in titles and headings except for articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. The first word of titles, subtitles, and headings are also capitalized.
2.3. CROSS REFERENCES
Cross references refer the reader to other part of the same publication and should refer to specific heading numbers or footnote numbers. Cross references should not refer to page numbers.
(see section 1.1.1 supra) … as outlined in Chapter 5 below.
Be consistent in the use of either supra and infra (in italics) or ‘above’ and ‘below’ (not italicized).
Ibid. (the abbreviation for ibidem) may be used in footnotes; it refers to the citation immediately preceding it and may only be used if the immediately preceding footnote contains no more than one citation. Ibid. takes the place of the entire citation and may be followed by a page number.
2.3.2. Op. Cit., Loc. Cit. and Id.
The terms op. cit., loc. cit. and id. should not be used.
Italicize the following:
– words the author chooses to emphasize;
– case names, including the v. (Wade v. Roe);
– foreign words, except for words that have become anglicized.
The following list of words should not be italicized in legal writing. Consult Black’s Law Dictionary for a complete list of anglicized legal terms.
ad hoc amicus curiae certiorari
de facto et seq. passim
de jure etc. prima facie
de novo habeas corpus quantum meruit
dicta, dictum i.e., quid pro quo
e.g., in personam res gestae
en banc in rem res ipsa loquitur
et al. inter alia res judicata
Use an unnumbered list with an en-dash (–) for short lists, for lists where numbering suggests an unintended hierarchy.
Where numbering is appropriate, lists and sub-lists should preferably be numbered in the following way:
level 1: 1, 2, 3 …
level 2: a, b, c …
level 3: i, ii, iii …
In all cases, lists must have at least two list items. List items should be punctuated either as full sentences (use an initial capital letter and end with a period) or as phrases (use a lower case letter to begin the item and a semicolon at the end of each line item, with a period after the last list item. It is acceptable to use and or or between the penultimate and final list item.
Use numerals for:
– numbers greater than ninety-nine;
– dates and times;
– statistics (including decimals, percentages, ratios, ages of people, monetary figures);
– numbers in a series (5, 10, and 250 years);
– number spans (2-4; 204-209).
2.6.2. Ordinal Numbers
Do not use superscript for ordinal numbers: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.
2.6.3. Spelled Numbers
Spell out the following numbers:
– numbers from zero to ninety-nine;
– write out the century number (nineteenth century);
– round numbers like hundred or thousand;
– numbers that begin a sentence.
Short quotations should be embedded in the text; if a quotation extends more than roughly four lines, use blockquote formatting.
Denote any emphasis using the parenthetical phrase ‘(emphasis added)’ at the end of the quotation.
2.8. SHORT REFERENCES
The first time you cite a source, use the full citation in the footnote. Subsequent references use the author’s last name, short title (only if the author cited has more than one reference), and page number.
Authors are allowed to use the spelling of their choice (British English or American English) as long as they do so consistently.
3. CITATION STYLE
The format for footnotes is:
- Author’s name: the author’s name (or the first name in the reference) is not inverted.
- Punctuation: in general, commas are used to separate citation elements.
- Publication information: publication place, publisher, and year are included in parentheses.
- Page numbers: included.
3.1.1. Basic Format
D. Gervais, TRIPS Agreement (London: Sweet and Maxwell, 2003), 25 et seq.
T. Delahaye, Résiliation et résolution unilatérales en droit commercial belge (Brussels: Bruylant, 1984), 304.
3.1.2. Two or Three Authors
George Cumming, Brad Spitz & Ruth Janal, Civil Procedure Used for Enforcement of EC Competition Law by the English, French and German Civil Courts (Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2007), 112.
3.1.3. Four or More Authors
Jurgen Basedow et al., Economic Regulation and Competition (Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2002), 12.
3.1.4. Unknown Author
The Cloud of Unknowing (New York: Doubleday, 1973), 43-44.
3.1.5. Edited Work
M. Leder (ed.), Consumer Law Statutes (London: Sweet and Maxwell, 1996), 66 et seq.
E. Cotran & C. Mallat (eds), The Arab-Israeli Accords: Legal Perspectives (London: Kluwer Law International, 1996), 86-90.
3.1.6. Article in an Edited Work
D.C. Fokkema & A.S. Hartkamp, ‘Law of Obligations’, in Introduction to Dutch Law for Foreign Lawyers, ed. H. Chorus (Deventer: Kluwer Law and Taxation, 1993), 86.
B. Clark, ‘Family Law’, in Introduction to the Law of South Africa, ed. C.G. van der Merwe & J.E. du Plessis (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2004), 140.
3.1.7. Translated Work
Marsilio Ficino, Three Books on Life, trans. Carol V. Kaske & John R. Clark (Tempe, AZ: Renaissance Society of America, 2002), 177.
3.1.8. Edition Other Than the First
L. Ritter & W.D. Braun, European Competition Law: A Practitioner’s Guide, 3rd ed. (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2004), 25.
3.1.9. Volume in a Multivolume Work
T. Dreier, C. Gielen & R. Hacon (eds), Concise Commentary on European Intellectual Property Law, vol. 1 of Concise Commentary on European IT Law, ed. A. Büllesbach, Y. Poullet & C. Prins (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2005), 25.
A.J. van den Berg (ed.), Yearbook Commercial Arbitration, vol. XXIX (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2004), 25.
3.1.10. Work in a Series
E. Sol & M. Westerveld, Contractualism in Employment Services: A New Form of Welfare State Governance, Studies in Employment and Social Policy, vol. 29 (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2005), 25.
3.2.1. Article in Journal Paginated by Volume
J. Eekelaar, ‘Parental Responsibility’, Journal of Social Welfare Law 16 (1991): 37.
A. Peters, ‘The European Ombudsman and the European Constitution’, Common Market Law Review 42 (2005): 700 et seq.
3.2.2. Article in Journal Paginated by Issue
A.P. Agarwal, ‘Conciliation and Arbitration of Labour Disputes in Australia’, Journal of Indian Law Institute 8, no. 1 (1966): 42.
3.2.3. Article in Magazine
Andrew Weil, ‘The New Politics of Coca’, New Yorker, 15 May 1995, 70.
3.2.4. Article in Newspaper
Lena H. Sun, ‘Chinese Feel the Strain of a New Society’, Washington Post, 13 June 1993, sec. A.
3.2.5. Unsigned Article
‘WTO Trade Policy Review: Brazil’, World Trade and Arbitration Materials 17 (2005): 95.
3.2.6. Book Review
W.C.H. Ervine, review of Collective Enforcement of Consumer Law: Securing Compliance in Europe through Private Group Action and Public Authority Intervention, edited by Willem H. Van Boom & Prof. Marco Loos, European Review of Private Law 16, no. 2 (2008): 371.
3.3. ELECTRONIC SOURCES
A.N. Author, ‘The Increasing Use of the Internet for Research’, www.website.com/internet/author.html, 1 January 1999.
3.4. OTHER SOURCES
3.4.1. Case Law and Legislation
Citations to cases should follow the style of the country of origin, including the date of the case, except for cases from common-law jurisdictions. The name of the jurisdictions and of the review or law report in which the case is published should be included. The names of the parties in cases from common-law jurisdictions should be in italics. The abbreviation ‘v.’ (for versus) should also be italicized.
3.4.2. Published Reports, Papers, and Other Documents
Fraud Trial Committee Report (London: HMSO, 1986), 1.
US Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1943 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1965), 562.
3.4.3. Conference Proceedings and Papers
C.J. Lipton, ‘Forms of Agreements’, paper no. 7 given at the United Nations Inter-regional Workshop on Drafting Mining Agreements (Buenos Aires, 1973).
J. Litman, ‘Consumers and the Global Copyright Bargain’, paper given at the Center for Intellectual Property Rights Congress (Detroit, 9 February 1996).
4. MANUSCRIPT FORMATTING
Use the European style dates.
1 January 2001 January 1, 2001
Use the helip symbol (…) for ellipsis, not spaced periods.
‘This decision … only seems to allow ‘This decision . . . only seems to allow
a negative conclusion.’ a negative conclusion.’
Please follow the following footnote rules:
- Use footnotes instead of endnotes.
- Footnote indicators follow punctuation marks in the text.
- Use an asterisk (*) for author affiliation footnotes, which precedes numbered footnotes.
4.4. FORWARD SLASHES
Do not use a space before and after a forward slash.
A maximum of three heading levels is recommended. Heading titles should follow title capitalization.
Level 1: 1
Level 2: 1.1
Level 3: 1.1.1
Carefully check the numbering system and the cross references.
When using italics, pay particular attention to punctuation on either side of the italicized section.
Correct Incorrect Explanation
‘italicized text’. ‘italicized text’. the first quotation mark is italicized in the incorrect
example and shouldn’t be
Lists in the manuscript should be clearly recognizable as lists.
Each table must be numbered and referenced in the text.